Technically, in Islamic terms, Dhimmi is a Non-Muslim living in any Muslim nation or living under Islamic Law (Sharia Law). This notion of Dhimmi comes only after Muslims have conquered a nation and subjugated its Non-Muslim inhabitants – which most Muslims never mention about.
The below video circulating on internet about this ‘Dhimmi’ and what it is, through lies and deception, is trying to create an image that Islamic concept of Dhimmi is no more different from the present day concept of citizens in a nation state.
First, this video never mentions about the fact that Islam makes an obligation on Islamic community to fight all Non-Muslims with the aim of either converting them to Islam or to subjugating them under Islamic law (or Islamic rule); this obligation is on Muslims with out any limit or restrictions on time and space, and is valid until the whole world comes under Islamic Law as below passages from Koran and Hadith (sayings and deeds of Prophet Mohammad) say:
Volume 1, Book 2, Number 25: (Sahih Bukhari)
Allah’s Apostle said: “I have been ordered (by Allah) to fight against the people until they testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that Muhammad is Allah’s Apostle, and offer the prayers perfectly and give the obligatory charity, so if they perform that, then they save their lives and property from me except for Islamic laws and then their reckoning (accounts) will be done by Allah.”
Koranic Verse, 9:29 > Fight against those who
– believe not in Allah,
– nor in the Last Day,
– nor forbid that which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger
– and those who acknowledge not the religion of truth (i.e. Islam) among the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), until they pay the Jizyah with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued. (1)
DHIMMAH AND DHIMMI
Islam gives 3 choices to Non-Muslims when they are conquered or to those living in Muslim nations: CONVERTING TO ISLAM or DEATH or PAYING JIZYA AND AGREEING TO LIVE BY PACT CALLED DHIMMAH. Those Non-Muslims, instead of converting to Islam, living under this pact are called Dhimmis.
Dhimmah is a set of humiliating and degrading conditions imposed on conquered and subjugated Non-Muslims by Islam. In theory, as long as Non-Muslims abide by these rules their lives are not taken and Muslim rulers are supposed to protect them. Muslims call it protection. But in practice it never happened as history is full of incidents that suggest there was never any security for Non-Muslims living by Dhimmah.
The word Dhimmah is derived from the Arabic verb ‘dhamma‘. It means ‘to blame, to dispraise, find fault with, censure, in respect of evil conduct’. Dhimma is the noun implying liability arising from fault or blame. But what is the fault of Non-Muslims? The answer is that they are not Muslims and have rejected Islam, the only true religion of God, even after being called to embrace Islam. So this Dhimmah is a pact (or a covenant or a treaty) of liability, its non-observance by Non-Muslims will attract blame and punishment – death – as if they are not already under punishment.
IS THE VALUE OF LIFE OF A DHIMMI IS EQUAL TO THE VALUE OF LIFE OF A MUSLIM ?
If the video says it intends to correct Non-Muslims misunderstanding the concept of Dhimmi as Islamaphobic websites purposefully engage in scaring Non-Muslims about and spreading hatred of Islam and Muslims, then it never really addresses the core issue how Islam (and Muslims) misunderstood ‘Dhimmi’ for 1400 years as it exists in canonical Sharia law.
Like most Muslims do, the video selectively quotes a saying of Prophet Mohammad from Hadith of Sahih Bukhari on Dhimmi:
Volume 4, Book 53, Number 391 (Sahih Bukhari):
The Prophet said, “Whoever killed a Dhimmi shall not smell the smell of Paradise though its smell is perceived from a distance of forty years.”
This provides an impression in the minds that Islamic law does not discriminate between Muslims and Non-Muslims and Prophet Mohammad was a kind man; this is the impression Muslims wanted to create. To see where this saying of Prophet stands in Islamic theology with regard to Non-Muslims living under Islamic law, all one has to do is read few more Hadith from the same book i.e. Sahih Bukhari:
Sahih Bukhari; Volume 9, Book 83, Number 50
Narrated Abu Juhaifa: I asked ‘Ali “Do you have anything Divine literature besides what is in the Qur’an?” Or, as Uyaina once said, “Apart from what the people have?” ‘Ali said, “By Him Who made the grain split (germinate) and created the soul, we have nothing except what is in the Quran and the ability (gift) of understanding Allah’s Book which He may endow a man, with and what is written in this sheet of paper.” I asked, “What is on this paper?” He replied, “The legal regulations of Diya (Blood-money) and the (ransom for) releasing of the captives, and the judgment that no Muslim should be killed in Qisas (equality in punishment) for killing a Kafir (disbeliever).”
So, in the views of Allah, or according to sayings of Prophet Mohammad, the value of life of Muslims is much superior to the value of life of Non-Muslims (Dhimmis). The Islamic sacred law (Sharia law) asserts the same thing (2), (3). Under Islamic Law or in beliefs, a Muslim can be punished with death sentence for killing a Muslim but no Muslim can be executed legally for killing a Non-Muslim (Dhimmi).
More from sayings of Prophet Mohammad, i.e in his words, on this discrimination and dehumanization of Dhimmis (Non-Muslims) from the Hadith of Sunan Dawood:
Book 39, Number 4491:
Narrated Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-‘As:
The Prophet (peace_be_upon_him) said: A believer will not be killed for an infidel. If anyone kills a man deliberately, he is to be handed over to the relatives of the one who has been killed. If they wish, they may kill, but if they wish, they may accept blood-wit
Book 39, Number 4515:
Narrated Ali ibn AbuTalib:
Qays ibn Abbad and Ashtar went to Ali and said to him: Did the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) give you any instruction about anything for which he did not give any instruction to the people in general?
He said: No, except what is contained in this document of mine. Musaddad said: He then took out a document. Ahmad said: A document from the sheath of his sword.
It contained: The lives of all Muslims are equal; they are one hand against others; the lowliest of them can guarantee their protection. Beware, a Muslim must not be killed for an infidel, nor must one who has been given a covenant be killed while his covenant holds. If anyone introduces an innovation, he will be responsible for it. If anyone introduces an innovation or gives shelter to a man who introduces an innovation (in religion), he is cursed by Allah, by His angels, and by all the people. Musaddad said: Ibn AbuUrubah’s version has: He took out a document.
Finally, it is like Muslims should not kill Dhimmis but if they kill then it is a minor (or insignificant) sin…….. !! Such is the sanctity of life of Dhimmi in Islam. And the sanctity of life of any Muslim can be seen from below:
“The destruction of the entire universe is less significant to Allah than the unjust killing of a single believer.” (Sunan Ibn Maja)
And this is what manual of Islamic Sacred Law, the reliance of traveller, of Shafi’i school of thought and jurisprudence, which has been certified by Al-Azhar University, the most important and authoritative institute in sunni Islam, says [read (2) for better understanding], :
*2*Chapter O1.0: Who is Subject to Subject to Retaliation for Injurious Crimes
Retaliation is obligatory (A: if the person entitled wishes to take it (dis: o3.8) ) against anyone who kills a human being purely intentionally and without right. (O: Intentionally is a first restriction and excludes killing someone through an honest mistake, while purely excludes a mistake made in a deliberate injury (def: o2.3), and without right excludes cases of justifiable homicide such as lawful retaliation.)
The following are not subject to retaliation:
-1- a child or insane person, under any circumstances (O: whether Muslim or non-Muslim.
The ruling for a person intermitently insane is that he is considered as a sane person when in his right mind, and as if someone continously insane when in an interval of insanity. If someone against whom retaliation is obligatory subsequently becomes insane, the full penalty is nevertheless exacted. A homicide committed by someone who is drunk is (A: considered the same as that of a sane person,) like his pronouncing divorce (dis: n1.2) );
–2- a Muslim for killing a non-Muslim.
As this law only requires any Muslim, who murdered a Dhimmi, to pay blood money to the family of deceased, it is reasonable to ask what it would be like; these 7 nth century laws are not merely being quoted here because they exist on paper but Muslims even today observe these laws in one way or other. Precisely for this reason, the video blaming ‘few’ Muslim extremists for misconception of ‘Dhimmi’ and Islam by Non-Muslims is grossly inadequate and dishonest, as it never points to, and condemn, the present day reality of Islamic countries which do not extend the same legal rights that Muslims enjoy to Non-Muslims. Here, I am not talking about Saudi Arabia, Sudan and Iran. I am talking about literally all Muslim nations. For better comprehension, one only has to read how Saudi Arabia, cradle of Islam, determines blood money (Diyya) based on religion: (Source: HERE) (4)
In Saudi Arabia, when a person has been killed or caused to die by another, the prescribed blood money rates are as follows : [ Blood money is to be paid not only for murder, but also in case of unnatural death, interpreted to mean death in a fire, industrial or road accident, for instance, as long as the responsibility for it falls on the causer.]
200,000 riyals if the victim is a Muslim man
1-0,000 riyals if a Muslim woman
100,000 riyals if a Christian or Jewish man
50,000 riyals if a Christian or Jewish woman
6,666 riyals if a man of any other religion
3,333 riyals if a woman of any other religion
The value of life of a Hindu is 45 times less than that of a Muslim (irrespective of Muslim’s nationality) ! Other schools might differ from this by saying Blood money of Christians and Jews is 1/3 or 1/4 of a Muslim.
This is the kind of Islamic Justice Muslims allude to, boast about it being the perfect and the best, and while wanting to subjugate Non-Muslims under it. Despite this dehumanization and other Muslim exclusive rights Islam enshrines, Muslims delude themselves by saying that Non-Muslims will ultimately convert to Islam because they realize goodness, kindness and justice in Islam !
(1): The verse 9:29 is one of numerous verses declaring open war against Non-Muslims but its significance is in the sentence ‘……….until they pay the Jizyah with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued.’ Being one of last verses to be revealed to Prophet Mohammad, this sentence posits the state under which conquered Non-Muslims should live. Initially it was understood that ‘the people of book’ is referring to only Jews and Christian. In Hanafi school of Islamic thought its ruling is extended to all Non-Muslims later . In the remaining 3 schools of thought idolaters, Hindus, Sikhs and Buddhists have only two choices i.e. death and Islam.
(2): Islamic system of law and punishment enforces ‘justice’ based on the law of retaliation (Qisas) and compensation through blood money (Diyya). It says the criminal should be punished by inflicting similar injury on him i.e. if a person kills another then criminal too must be killed or if a person causes some injury leading to loss of hand then the criminal’s hand too must be cut off. At the same time it gives the choice to victim ( family of the victim) to forego his right to retaliate and instead seek financial compensation from the family of the criminal. Islamic law determines blood money for all crimes based on the religion of victims. Blood money for Non-Muslims, men and women, is always less than that of Muslims.
(3): Of 4 major schools of thought in Sunni Islam, all schools except Hanafi school rule that Muslim can not executed for killing a Dhimmi. This laxity in Hanafi is insignificant when we consider that it holds testimony of Non-Muslims is invalid in courts – which makes impossible for Non-Muslims to prove any crime committed against them by Muslims.
(4): The superiority of Muslims and dehumanization of Non-Muslims can also be read from other Hadith esp. Sunan Dawud:
Abu Dawud ; Book 39, # 4527
Narrated Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-‘As: The value of the blood-money at the time of the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) was eight hundred dinars or eight thousand dirhams, and the blood-money for the people of the Book was half of that for Muslims. He said: This applied till Umar (Allah be pleased with him) became caliph and he made a speech in which he said: Take note! Camels have become dear. So Umar fixed the value for those who possessed gold at one thousand dinars, for those who possessed silver at twelve thousand (dirhams), for those who possessed cattle at two hundred cows, for those who possessed sheep at two thousand sheep, and for those who possessed suits of clothing at two hundred suits. He left the blood-money for dhimmis (protected people) as it was, not raising it in proportion to the increase he made in the blood-wit.